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  • MDRO - Multidrug-Resistant Organisms
  • MRSA (pronounced: mersa)
  • MRSA is an acronym for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

This is the Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) portion of the multi-drug resistant organism module of OSHA's Hospital eTool. This electronic aid provides information (see Disclaimer) to help stop the spread of MRSA among employees and others working in healthcare and other industries. Your local public health agency has information on what your community is doing to prevent the spread of MRSA.

Since the mid 1970s, there has been a dramatic increase in the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus (staph infections) caused by MRSA. MRSA infections are becoming increasingly common among persons of all ages who previously were considered to be at low risk for this type of infection. Employers and employees in a number of different industries have expressed concern about MRSA infections in the workplace and what they can do about it. MRSA colonization and/or infections have been reported in healthcare employees and laboratory personnel, professional athletes, veterinarians, pig farmers, correctional facility personnel, and among school staff. The information contained in these pages may help you avoid becoming infected with MRSA while on the job.

  • What Causes MRSA?

Garden-variety staph are common bacteria that can live on our bodies. Plenty of healthy people carry staph without being infected by it. In fact, 25%-30% of us have staph bacteria in our noses.

But staph can be a problem if it manages to get into the body, often through a cut. Once there, it can cause an infection. Staph is one of the most common causes of skin infections in the U.S. Usually, these are minor and don't need special treatment. Less often, staph can cause serious problems like infected wounds or pneumonia.

Staph can usually be treated with antibiotics. But over the decades, some strains of staph -- like MRSA -- have become resistant to antibiotics that once destroyed it. MRSA was first discovered in 1961. It's now resistant to methicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, oxacillin, and many other antibiotics.

While some antibiotics still work, MRSA is constantly adapting. Researchers developing new antibiotics are having a tough time keeping up.

  • Who Gets MRSA?

MRSA is spread by contact. So you could get MRSA by touching another person who has it on the skin. Or you could get it by touching objects that have the bacteria on them. MRSA is carried, or "colonized," by about 1% of the population, although most of them aren't infected.

MRSA infections are common among people who have weak immune systems and are in hospitals, nursing homes, and other heath care centers. Infections can appear around surgical wounds or invasive devices, like catheters or implanted feeding tubes. Rates of infection in hospitals, especially intensive care units, are rising throughout the world. In U.S. hospitals, MRSA causes more than 60% of staph infections.

  • Community-Associated MRSA (CA-MRSA):

But MRSA is also showing up in healthy people who have not been living in the hospital. This type of MRSA is called community-associated MRSA, or CA-MRSA. The CDC reports that in 2007, 14% of people with MRSA infections had CA-MRSA.

Studies have shown that rates of CA-MRSA infection are growing fast. One study of children in south Texas found that cases of CA-MRSA had a 14-fold increase between 1999 and 2001.

CA-MRSA skin infections have been identified among certain populations that share close quarters or experience more skin-to-skin contact. Examples are team athletes, military recruits, and prison inmates. However, more and more CA-MRSA infections are being seen in the general community as well, especially in certain geographic regions.

It's also infecting much younger people. In a study of Minnesotans published in The Journal of the American Medical Association, the average age of people with MRSA in a hospital or health care facility was 68. But the average age of a person with CA-MRSA was only 23.


MRSA (pronounced: mersa)
Staphylococcus aureus, commonly called "staph", is a bacteria commonly found on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. Sometimes staph can cause infections. Most of the time, these are minor skin infections that look like pimples or boils. A staph skin infection is often red, swollen, painful and may have pus or fluid draining from the affected area. Sometimes the staph bacteria can cause more severe infections in the lungs, heart, bones, deep in the skin tissues, or spread throughout the body through the bloodstream.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, is a type of staph that is resistant to some antibiotics. MRSA infections occur most frequently among persons in hospitals and other healthcare facilities (such as nursing homes and dialysis centers) who have weakened immune systems. These healthcare-associated MRSA infections include infections of surgical wounds, the urinary tract, bloodstream and lungs (pneumonia). HA-MRSA can also cause illness in persons outside of hospitals and healthcare facilities. MRSA infections that are acquired by persons who have not been recently (within the past year) hospitalized or had a medical procedure (such as dialysis, surgery, the insertion of a catheter) are known as community-associated MRSA infections. CA-MRSA infections are usually manifested as skin infections, such as pimples and boils, and occur in otherwise healthy people. However, some severe CA-MRSA infections have also occurred in healthy individuals.

More information on MRSA can be found at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Web pages and on Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Web pages.

  • Disclaimer:

This guidance is advisory in nature and informational in content. It is not a standard or a regulation, and it neither creates new legal obligations nor alters existing obligations created by OSHA standards or the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act). Pursuant to the OSH Act, employers must comply with safety and health standards as issued and enforced either by OSHA or by an OSHA-approved State Plan. In addition, Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act, the General Duty Clause, requires employers to provide their employees with a workplace free from recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious physical harm. Employers can be cited for violating the General Duty Clause if there is a recognized hazard and they do not take specific steps to prevent or abate the hazard. However, failure to implement any recommendations in this guidance is not, in itself, a violation of the General Duty Clause. Citations can only be based on standards, regulations, or the General Duty Clause.

Step#1 MRSA produces a toxic amount of lactic acid in the blood causing "oxidative stress" to your body and keeping your immune system from fighting.

Step#2 our product called pHenomenal removes lactic acid faster than any traditional MRSA treatment has ever been able to, giving you your life back.

  • Right now you have two choices!

1. Keep on living with the fear of MRSA…or…

2. Learn the MRSA cycle and free yourself!

I’m sorry if that sounds a bit pushy but it’s true. My heart breaks for the thousands of people stuck in the useless ups and downs of re-occurring MRSA infections when they can be stopped with just a little understanding.

I'm going to provide you the seven basics of MRSA in a quick and concise read. By reading them, you can arm yourself with the tools to break the cycle of MRSA and get your life back.


It all starts with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) getting under the skin.

There is no need to obsess about how or why it happened… it happened.


Your immune system valiantly fights (MRSA). It redirects its army from maintaining your health and preventing other viral and bacterial invaders. It now has one enemy that it must kill or die trying (literally).


Did you have a fever when you got MRSA?

Think back to before you found out you had MRSA, did you have a fever? Maybe felt like you had the flu?

Your killer T cells (that’s your immune system) have marked Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for death but they have lost the battle and THEY WILL NOT FIGHT MRSA AGAIN BECAUSE THEY KNOW THEY WILL LOSE!

MRSA is now in the blood with no one to stop it.


(I would use a stronger word than “crud” but it wouldn’t be proper)

You’re going to read this again and again on this website but MRSA only eats sugar and produces lactic acid. In fact so much lactic acid your body can’t get rid of it and you become toxic in lactic acid (this is called “Lactic acidosis” or by a new definition “sepsis“) This is why MRSA causes the symptoms of body-shutdown: sleepy, tired, depressed, grumpy, constipated, crave sugar, sore, lack of breath and general malaise.


Antibiotics are a necessary tool and millions of people would be dead and gone without them but they are often ineffective with MRSA.

As your doctor experiments with various antibiotics, they soon run out of options and the MRSA bacteria becomes more resistant to them. In the meantime, you are trapped in lactic acidosis, which the immune system cannot neutralize.


At this point, traditional medicine is out of options. They will treat you symptomatically as your body continues to deteriorate and as your immune system fails to fight off other diseases that will further debilitate you.

Step 7: TAKE AWAY MRSA’S SECRET WEAPON AND YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM WILL ACT WITH JAW DROPPING SPEED! We have the worlds (really) fastest way of removing toxic lactic acid from your body! This will change your life! Not only will removing the toxic amounts of lactic acid give you your life back but it’s the lactic acid that keeps Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) safe. Once acid levels come down you feel better, less pain, solid emotions, energy, MRSA wounds heal up ridiculously faster than before and most of all your immune system will get stronger and stronger until one day…. it will attack and kill this mutant bacteria freeing you from it’s prison.

There is a growing community of people just like you that have freed themselves from MRSA. You can find their life changing stories on this site and their reviews of our number one product called pHenomenal.

We are still a small company and doing our best to get our clinical studies done (it’s much harder then you think) but our science is solid and the results are undeniable. If you have a MRSA boil, folliculitis, an open wound or anything MRSA related the answer is always the same.


  • Bacterial and Viral Infections:

Bacterial and viral infections have many similarities. Both types of infections are caused by microbes -- bacteria and viruses, respectively -- and spread by routes such as:

·         Coughing and sneezing.

·         Contact with contaminated people, especially through activities such as kissing and sexual intercourse.

·         Contact with contaminated surfaces, food, and water.

·         Contact with contaminated creatures, including household pets, livestock, and insects such as fleas and ticks.

Microbes can also cause:

  • Recommended Related to Infectious Diseases:


Important It is possible that the main title of the report Aspergillosis is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

Read the Aspergillosis article > >

·         Acute infections,which are short-lived.

·         Chronic infections,which can last for weeks, months, or a lifetime.

·         Latent infections, which may not initially cause symptoms but which can reactivate over a period of months and years.

Most importantly, bacterial and viral infections -- which are defined as an invasion of microbes able to reproduce in the body -- can cause mild, moderate, and severe disease.

Throughout history, millions of people have succumbed to diseases such as bubonic plague or the Black Death, which is caused by the Yersinia pestis bacterium, and smallpox, which is caused by the variola virus. In recent times, viral infections have been responsible for two major pandemics: the 1918-1919 “Spanish flu” epidemic that killed 20-40 million people, and the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic that killed an estimated 2 million people worldwide in 2008 alone.


Bacterial and viral infections can cause similar symptoms such as coughing and sneezing, fever, inflammation, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, and cramping -- all of which are ways the immune system tries to rid the body of infectious organisms. But bacterial and viral infections are dissimilar in many other important respects, most of them due to the organisms' structural differences and the way they respond to currently available antimicrobial medications.

  • The Differences Between Bacteria and Viruses:

Although bacteria and viruses are both too small to be seen without a microscope, they're structurally as different as giraffes and goldfish.

Bacteria are relatively complex, single-celled creatures with a rigid wall and a thin, rubbery membrane surrounding the fluid or cytoplasm inside the cell. Shaped like balls, rods, or spirals, they contain all of the genetic information needed to make copies of themselves. Fossilized records show that bacteria have existed for about 3.5 billion years, and it's known that bacteria can survive in a variety of environments, including extreme heat and cold, radioactive waste, and the human body.

Most bacteria are harmless, and some -- such as the Lactobacilli acidophilus bacteria that can live in the human intestine -- actually help digest food, destroy disease-causing microbes, fight cancer cells, and provide essential nutrients. Fewer than 1% of bacteria cause disease in people.

In contrast, viruses are tiny: the largest of them are smaller than the smallest bacteria. Viruses come in varied shapes, and have a limited genetic blueprint. All they have is a protein coat and a core of genetic material: either RNA or DNA. Unlike bacteria, viruses can't survive without a host. They can only reproduce by attaching themselves to cells and hijacking the cells' cellular machinery. In most cases, they reprogram the cells to make new viruses until the cells burst and die. In other cases, they turn normal cells into malignant or cancerous cells.

Also unlike bacteria, most viruses do cause disease, and they're quite specific about the cells they attack. For example, certain viruses are programmed to attacks cells in the liver, respiratory system, or blood. In some cases, viruses called bacteriophages target bacteria.